Modern Architecture in Historic Cities
Modern Architecture in Historic Cities illustrates why France has been so successful in combining conservation and modernity, and points to important lessons for other countries which can be drawn from the French experience. Beginning with an empirical review of particular events which have affected attitudes towards heritage in France, this book highlights the continuity in French thinking and the longstanding role of the French government as patron and leader. Planning, conservation and design control legislation are examined, highlighting the range of instruments available to government in order to influence results and enhance the role of the architectural profession.
Provides an invaluable statement of the interests, concerns and ambitions facing the guardians, managers and designers of our urban heritage. For policy makers, owners, and amenity groups the book provides a balanced overview of current attitudes to managing change in historic environments. For professionals of conservation and architecture it presents a challenging and comprehensive view of the philosophies of respected designers and administrators to the central issue of how to cherish our built heritage without separating it from everyday life. The schism between the modern movement and the conservationists has mellowed considerably since the 'heroic' period of architecture of the 1950's and the 1960's when a desire to reject the past and refocus on new aesthetic and social values often resulted in inappropriate developments and damaging insertions to the historic fabric of our towns and cities. Today, policy makers and planners recognize the focus of urban conservation to be as much concerned with the making of sustainable and vibrant places as the conservation and restoration of buildings. Design thinking has matured to absorb modernism and recognise the values of the past in building a continuity for the future. 'Context: new buildings in historic settings' stems from a seminar held at The University of York, Institute of Advanced Architectural Studies, which drew together leading architects, urban managers, policy makers and client bodies. The outcome was an invigorating debate, which spanned from Robert Adam's advocacy for traditional design to the uncompromising but sublime correctness of Foster and Partners' insertions into historic settings. Explores the pressures of new buildings in historic areas and provides guidance for designs Learn about the current trends and future solutions through numerous case studies
Preserving the World s Great Cities
A wide-ranging study of architectural and cultural preservation in the world's great urban centers examines the devastating impact of war, economics, and indifference on the great cities and efforts throughout China, the U.S. Japan, Europe, and elsewhere to restore and preserve buildings and landmarks. 15,000 first printing.
Packed in its dense, historic city centers, Italy holds some of the most prized architecture and art in the world, with which planners and politicians have had to negotiate as they struggle to cope with massive migration from the countryside to the city. Early modern architecture coincided with a sustained drive to transform a country that was still primarily rural into a modern industrial state, and throughout the twentieth century, architects in Italy have attempted to define the role of architecture within a capitalist economy and under diverse political systems. In Italy: Modern Architectures in History, Diane Yvonne Ghirardo addresses these and other issues in her analysis of the last century of Italy’s building practices. Specifically, she examines the post-unification efforts to identify a distinctly Italian architectural language, as well as the transformation of the urban environment in Italian cities undergoing industrialization in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. She challenges received interpretations of modern architecture and also looks at the subject of illegal building and current responses to ecological challenges. In order to illuminate the full scope of the building industry in Italy, her examples are drawn not only from the work of widely published architects in the largest cities but from throughout the peninsula, including small towns and rural areas. Insightful reading for those interested in Italian culture, this book offers a new way of understanding the architectural history of modern Italy.
The Jewish Contribution to Modern Architecture 1830 1930
A book about architecture and society, a wide-ranging cultural and historical depiction of successful Jewish entrepreneurs in an increasingly industrialized Europe, from the dissolution of the ghetto and the 1848 liberation movement to Hitler's assumption of power in Germany. Inspired by Jewish messianism, they pursued a modern culture, free from the old feudal society. The principal characters are bankers, merchants, and industrialists together with their architects, from Schinkel and Semper to Mies van der Rohe and Le Corbusier. They build in Paris, Berlin, and Vienna, Budapest and New York, and in more remote centers of Jewish entrepreneurial activity, such as Oradea (Nagyvarad) in present-day Romania and Lodz in Poland, Stockholm and Gothenburg in Sweden. The buildings shed new light on the Europe of today, but also on a Europe that is lost beyond recall.
Zoned in the USA
Why are American cities, suburbs, and towns so distinct? Compared to European cities, those in the United States are characterized by lower densities and greater distances; neat, geometric layouts; an abundance of green space; a greater level of social segregation reflected in space; and—perhaps most noticeably—a greater share of individual, single-family detached housing. In Zoned in the USA, Sonia A. Hirt argues that zoning laws are among the important but understudied reasons for the cross-continental differences. Hirt shows that rather than being imported from Europe, U.S. municipal zoning law was in fact an institution that quickly developed its own, distinctly American profile. A distinct spatial culture of individualism—founded on an ideal of separate, single-family residences apart from the dirt and turmoil of industrial and agricultural production—has driven much of municipal regulation, defined land-use, and, ultimately, shaped American life. Hirt explores municipal zoning from a comparative and international perspective, drawing on archival resources and contemporary land-use laws from England, Germany, France, Australia, Russia, Canada, and Japan to challenge assumptions about American cities and the laws that guide them.
The Importance of Place
How do we value historic urban landscape in order to intervene within it as designers? This is the central question posed in this volume, and is tackled by its 16 essays which investigate different facets of value as bases of building and design practices on a range of spatial scales and brought about by a variety of historical circumstances. While the modernist metanarrative of universalism propagated functionalism and, through it, biological and psychological motives of design activity, contemporary building practices are based on more complex and diverse patterns of values that range from cultural to market-driven. Researched, reconstructed and critically assessed, the different case studies brought together here reveal the many possible shades of the ‘importance of place’ with which architects, urban planners and city officials work today in the Southern European context. Marked in recent decades by social and political transition and economic hardship, the reality of this region’s cities caused repeated revisions of value-systems in all spheres of public life, making it, thus, a particularly intriguing context to observe in these terms. In this sense, these essays will be of interest to university scholars in architecture, art history, urbanism and planning, in addition to practicing designers and public officials who encounter problems of value-definitions in their everyday working tasks related to the shaping and management of contemporary urban space.
Although contemporary practice in urbanism has many sources of design guidelines, it lacks theory to provide a flexible approach to the complexities of most urban situations. The author provides that theoretical framework, looking beyond the style obsession of urban makeovers to the fundamental elements of city-making. The scope of this book takes in illuminating historical analysis and significant theoretical coherence, while recent case studies link the physical environment to the citizens within it, ultimately offering a new methodology for the analysis and design of urban spaces which encourages a balance between diversity and community.
The Town Planning Review
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Conservation and Sustainability in Historic Cities
Conservation and Sustainability in Historic Cities examines how the two key issues of urban conservation and sustainability relate to each other in the context of historic cities, and how they can be brought together in a common philosophy and practice that is mutually supportive. It sets out the theoretical and practical background to architectural conservation and how its perceived relevance and level of attainment can be extended when harnessed to wider agendas of sustainability and cultural identity. It tests the achievement of urban conservation through examples from across Europe and further afield and relates them to the sustainability agenda.