Le peuple introuvable
La démocratie a proclamé la souveraineté du peuple, mais dans le même temps, c'est une société d'individus qui est advenue. Alors le peuple a paru insaisissable. Dès le commencement, le problème des conditions d'une " bonne " représentation politique s'est donc posé et il n'a pas cessé depuis. Pierre Rosanvallon s'attache à construire l'histoire de cette question. Partant des formulations et des expériences de la période révolutionnaire, il reprend ensuite le fil des interrogations et des tâtonnements du XIXe siècle pour montrer comment s'est constituée, au tournant du XXe siècle, une démocratie d'équilibre. Le rôle reconnu aux partis politiques, l'adoption de nouvelles techniques électorales, la place faite à des corps intermédiaires comme les syndicats, le développement des sciences sociales même ont apporté des éléments partiels de réponse au déficit originaire de figuration. Ce qu'il est convenu d'appeler la " crise de représentation " doit être compris comme résultant, depuis les années 1970-1980, de l'érosion de cette démocratie d'équilibre. Les transformations de la société et l'épuisement des institutions se sont alors conjugués pour faire retourner la démocratie à ses apories premières.
The Oxford Handbook of French Politics
The Oxford Handbook of French Politics provides a comprehensive and comparative overview of the French political system through the lens of political science. The Handbook is organized into three parts: the first part identifies foundational concepts for the French case, including chapters on republicanism and social welfare; the second part focuses on thematic large-scale processes, such identity, governance, and globalization; while the third part examines a wide range of issues relating to substantive politics and policy, among which are chapters on political representation, political culture, social movements, economic policy, gender policy, and defense and security policy. The volume brings together established and emerging scholars and seeks to examine the French political system from a comparative perspective. The contributors provide a state-of-the-art review both of the comparative scholarly literature and the study of the French case, making The Oxford Handbook of French Politics an invaluable resource for anyone interested in the foundations of contemporary political life in France.
From Deliberation to Demonstration
This book, at the crossroads of history and political science, reveals the transformation of political rallies in France from the last years of the Second Empire until the end of the Third Republic. Originally designed by Republicans to teach citizenship and form political opinion through open debate, rallies gradually became a stage dedicated to the show of force, at the initiative of various emerging political formations. This distortion is apparent by the turn of the twentieth century, and became even more marked in the rallies between the two world wars. Faced with this transformation, the government did not hesitate, in the second half of the 1930s, to invalidate the liberal credo that had endorsed the right of assembly since the installation of the Republic. French participatory democracy has a history that this book helps to trace.
Democracy Past and Future
Democracy Past and Future is the first English-language collection of Pierre Rosanvallon's most important essays on the historical origins, contemporary difficulties, and future prospects of democratic life. One of Europe's leading political thinkers, Rosanvallon proposes in these essays new readings of the history, aims, and possibilities of democratic theory and practice, and provides unique theoretical understandings of key moments in democracy's trajectory, from the French Revolution and the struggles for universal suffrage to European unification and the crises of the present. In so doing, he lays out an influential new theory of how to write the history of politics. Rosanvallon's historical and philosophical approach examines the "pathologies" that have curtailed democracy's potential and challenges the antitotalitarian liberalism that has dominated recent political thought. All in all, he adroitly combines historical and theoretical analysis with an insistence on the need for a new form of democracy. Above all, he asks what democracy means when the people rule but are nowhere to be found. Throughout his career, Rosanvallon has resisted simple categorization. Rosanvallon was originally known as a primary theorist of the "second left", which hoped to stake out a non-Marxist progressive alternative to the irresistible appeal of revolutionary politics. In fact, Rosanvallon revived the theory of "civil society" even before its usage by East European dissidents made it globally popular as a non-statist politics of freedom and pluralism. His ideas have been shaped by a variety of influences, ranging from his work with an influential French union to his teachers François Furet and Claude Lefort. Well known throughout Europe as a historian, political theorist, social critic, and public intellectual, Pierre Rosanvallon was recently elected to a professorship at the Collège de France, Paris, a position held at various times by Claude Lévi-Strauss, Michel Foucault, and Pierre Bourdieu. Democracy Past and Future begins with Rosanvallon's groundbreaking and synthetic lecture that he delivered upon joining this institution. Throughout the volume, Rosanvallon illuminates and invigorates contemporary political and democratic thought.
History as a Kind of Writing
Philippe Carrard, a historian and theorist of historical forms and functions, has an enviable reputation both in France and the U.S. He gives historiographers access to what writers of history in France have been doing the past 25 years, casting light on views of historiography put forward by literary theorists, by theorists of history, and by historians themselves. The field of historical theory has been dominated by Hayden White for a long time; Carrard bids fair to displace him, by showing how historians use other forms (i.e., in addition to narrative) for building their accounts. This book provides an overview of the current state of French historiography (touching on history of memory, contemporary history, political history, and other areas that the Annales school left out or rejected), but it aims to do more. Carrard examines conventions of historiographic writing at different levels, going from the structure of the whole book to specific points such as the use of the first person singular, the turn to figurative language, and the way documents are made part of the text. Throughout the book, Carrard is in constant dialogue with English-speaking theorists of history (from Ankersmit to Megill and many in between on our backlist), and among the many French theorists, he ranges from Henry Rousso to Paul Veyne, also on out backlist. He is at pains to keep the distinction between history and fiction clearly in sight, treating the uses of figurative languages, anachronisms, incompleteness of evidence, and more, all related to the poetics of French historiography, by which he means the study of the rules, codes, and conventions that operate in a given set of texts. "
The French Republic
An invaluable reference work on the the history and meaning of Republicanism in France.
Parliament and Parliamentarism
Parliamentary theory, practices, discourses, and institutions constitute a distinctively European contribution to modern politics. Taking a broad historical perspective, this cross-disciplinary, innovative, and rigorous collection locates the essence of parliamentarism in four key aspects-deliberation, representation, responsibility, and sovereignty-and explores the different ways in which they have been contested, reshaped, and implemented in a series of representative national and regional case studies. As one of the first comparative studies in conceptual history, this volume focuses on debates about the nature of parliament and parliamentarism within and across different European countries, representative institutions, and genres of political discourse.
A Divided Republic
This book is an original and sophisticated historical interpretation of contemporary French political culture. Until now, there have been few attempts to understand the political consequences of the profound geopolitical, intellectual and economic changes that France has undergone since the 1970s. However, Emile Chabal's detailed study shows how passionate debates over citizenship, immigration, colonial memory, the reform of the state and the historiography of modern France have galvanised the French elite and created new spaces for discussion and disagreement. Many of these debates have coalesced around two political languages - republicanism and liberalism - both of which structure the historical imagination and the symbolic vocabulary of French political actors. The tension between these two political languages has become the central battleground of contemporary French politics. It is around these two poles that politicians, intellectuals and members of France's vast civil society have tried to negotiate the formidable challenges of ideological uncertainty and a renewed sense of global insecurity.
The first comprehensive analysis of the philosophical issues raised by the hijab controversy in France, this book also conducts a dialogue between contemporary Anglo-American and French political theory and defends a progressive republican solution to so-called multicultural conflicts in contemporary societies. It critically assesses the official republican philosophy of laïcité which purported to justify the 2004 ban on religious signs in schools. Laïcité is shown to encompass a comprehensive theory of republican citizenship, centered on three ideals: equality (secular neutrality of the public sphere), liberty (individual autonomy and emancipation) and fraternity (civic loyalty to the community of citizens). Challenging official interpretations of laïcité, the book then puts forward a critical republicanism which does not support the hijab ban, yet upholds a revised interpretation of three central republican commitments: secularism, non-domination and civic solidarity. Thus, it articulates a version of secularism which squarely addresses the problem of status quo bias - the fact that Western societies are historically not neutral towards all religions. It also defends a vision of female emancipation which rejects the coercive paternalism inherent in the regulation of religious dress, yet does not leave individuals unaided in the face of religious and secular, patriarchal and ethnocentric domination. Finally, the book outlines a theory of immigrant integration which places the burden of civic integration on basic socio-political institutions, rather than on citizens themselves. Critical republicanism proposes an entirely new approach to the management of religious and cultural pluralism, centred on the pursuit of the progressive ideal of non-domination in existing, non-ideal societies. Oxford Political Theory presents the best new work in contemporary political theory. It is intended to be broad in scope, including original contributions to political philosophy, and also work in applied political theory. The series will contain works of outstanding quality with no restriction as to approach or subject matter. Series Editors: Will Kymlicka, David Miller, and Alan Ryan.
Democracy in Modern France
With its unique blend of political history and political theory, this book is a welcome addition to the series on Politics, Culture and Society in the New Europe. Nick Hewlett begins his fascinating study with a discussion of the various ways in which the concept of democracy has been interpreted. He continues by tracing the effect of France's revolutionary tradition on the theory and practice of democracy since the Enlightenment, looking in particular at both republican democracy and direct democracy. Hewlett examines the implications for democracy of profound social and political conflict in France and offers an unusual critique of the institutions and structures of formal politics, suggesting that their relationship with democracy is more tenuous than is often assumed. The political philosophy of `new liberals' such as Luc Ferry and Marcel Gauchet is also discussed in detail. Thought-provoking, original and closely-argued, this book explores some key aspects of politics in France whilst making a strong case for greater direct participation of ordinary people in politics. Nick Hewlett is Professor of French Studies and Director of the Centre for European Research at Oxford Brookes University. He is author of Modern French Politics. Conflict and Consensus since 1945 (1998), co-author of Contemporary France (with Jill Forbes and François Nectoux, 1994 and 2001), and co-editor of Currents in Contemporary French intellectual Life (with Christopher Flood, 2000) and Unity and Diversity in the New Europe (with Barrie Axford and Daniela Berghahn, 2000).