La Fin des territoires
Du dépassement de la société féodale jusqu'au traité de Versailles, la conception politique du territoire n'a cessé de se préciser. Support exclusif de l'autorité, celui-ci a eu pour fonction de dessiner le cadre des allégeances individuelles, celui du contrôle et de l'allocation. Il a doté la vie internationale de ses principes fondateurs en la concevant comme une réunion d'unités souveraines. Cette construction est désormais ébranlée, victime de la modernité, de la mobilisation accrue des individus, des progrès de la communication, du retour du particularisme et de l'ethnicisme. Trop étroit pour faire face au développement des échanges, il est jugé trop vaste pour s'adapter aux besoins de la nouvelle quête identitaire. Il est de moins en moins admis comme support d'une identité politique citoyenne et de plus en plus toléré ou réclamé comme l'instrument d'une identité religieuse ou ethnique. A mesure que la définition politique des peuples s'efface, l'affirmation des droits d'autodétermination suppose une remise en cause globale et désacralisée des territoires. Il en découle un désordre qui semble échapper aux règles de la géographie politique et où la complexité des réseaux modernes et l'enchevêtrement des identités traditionnelles l'emportent conjointement sur l'appartenance à un territoire. La montée en puissance des flux transnationaux, l'essor des réseaux tout comme la mise en échec de la relation citoyenne un peu partout affaiblissent inévitablement _ en particulier hors d'Europe _ le territoire de l'Etat-nation qui peut de moins en moins prétendre bénéficier de l'allégeance prioritaire des individus. Il se forme des tendances où le multiple semble triompher de l'un: d'une Europe pluri-spatiale à une Asie orientale faite de réseaux ouverts, on devine de nouvelles divisions du travail, des façons inédites de penser la multiplicité des fonctions à travers la multiplicité des espaces et des allégeances. La fin des médiations territoriales peut annoncer aussi l'avènement d'une mondialisation manquée et ne conduire directement ni à l'émancipation de l'individu ni à la construction d'une société mondiale. Atteindre ces deux objectifs suppose que la dimension universaliste dont était porteur le principe de territorialité soit réinvestie ailleurs, que le respect de l'autre devienne une valeur transnationale, à un moment où aucune institution n'a les moyens de l'imposer par la contrainte. Bertrand Badie est professeur de science politique à l'Institut d'études politiques de Paris. Il a publié chez Fayard Les Deux Etats (1987) et L'Etat importé (1992).
The Future of International Relations
This book presents the state of the art of international relations theory through an analysis of the work of twelve key contemporary thinkers; John Vincent, Kenneth Waltz, Robert O. Keohane, Robert Gilpin, Bertrand Badie, John Ruggie, Hayward Alker, Nicholas G. Onuf, Alexander Wendt, Jean Bethke Elshtain, R.B.J. Walker and James Der Derian. The authors aim to break with the usual procedure in the field which juxtaposes aspects of the work of contemporary theorists with others, presenting them as part of a desembodied school of thought or paradigm. A more individual focus can demonstrate instead, the well-rounded character of some of the leading oeuvres and can thus offer a more representative view of the discipline. This book is designed to cover the work of theorists whom students of international relations will read and sometimes stuggle with. The essays can be read either as introductions to the work of these theorists or as companions to it. Each chapter attempts to place the thinker in the landscape of the discipine, to identify how they go about studying International Relations, and to discuss what others can learn from them.
Nationalism and Globalisation
This book addresses a seemingly paradoxical situation. On the one hand, nationalism from Scotland to the Ukraine remains a resilient political dynamic, fostering secessionist movements below the level of the state. On the other, the competence and capacity of states, and indeed the coherence of nationalism as an ideology, are increasingly challenged by patterns of globalisation in commerce, cultural communication and constitutional authority beyond the state. It is the aim of this book to shed light on the relationship between these two processes, addressing why the political currency of nationalism remains strong even when the salience of its objective – independent and autonomous statehood – becomes ever more attenuated. The book takes an interdisciplinary approach both within law and beyond, with contributions from international law, constitutional law, constitutional theory, history, political science and sociology. The challenge for our time is considerable. Global networks grow ever more sophisticated while territorial borders, such as those in Eastern and Central Europe, become seemingly more unstable. It is hoped that this book, by bringing together areas of scholarship which have not communicated with one another as much as they might, will help develop an ongoing dialogue across disciplines with which better to understand these challenging, and potentially destabilising, developments.
Regions in Europe
Explores the state of regional politics in an increasingly integrated Europe. The text argues that the predicted rise of increased political power at the regional level has failed to materialize and is fraught with paradox. In doing so this study locates regions in relation to European integration, globalisation, the nation state, local government, and comparative and national perspectives. Using case studies of the main players in Europe including: Germany, France, UK, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands and Belgium, the contributors show how and why European regions remain remarkably weak in European governance. Drawing together European scholars, the text should be of interest to those interested in European politics, political economy, nations states and social groups in the new Europe.
The Trouble with the Congo
The Trouble with the Congo suggests a new explanation for international peacebuilding failures in civil wars. Drawing from more than 330 interviews and a year and a half of field research, it develops a case study of the international intervention during the Democratic Republic of the Congo's unsuccessful transition from war to peace and democracy (2003–6). Grassroots rivalries over land, resources, and political power motivated widespread violence. However, a dominant peacebuilding culture shaped the intervention strategy in a way that precluded action on local conflicts, ultimately dooming the international efforts to end the deadliest conflict since World War II. Most international actors interpreted continued fighting as the consequence of national and regional tensions alone. UN staff and diplomats viewed intervention at the macro levels as their only legitimate responsibility. The dominant culture constructed local peacebuilding as such an unimportant, unfamiliar, and unmanageable task that neither shocking events nor resistance from select individuals could convince international actors to reevaluate their understanding of violence and intervention.
The History of Development
This penetrating history of the development concept has been updated to include coverage of the new development emphasis on elimating poverty.
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Geopolitics at the End of the Twentieth Century
An excellent examination of how the collapse of the Soviet Union and the impact of globalization have brought about changes not only to the territorial configuration sovereignty of states and their boundaries, but also to traditional notions of state, boundaries, sovereignty and social order These essays focus on the key regional and geopolitical characteristics of this global reordering, with an emphasis on Eastern Europe and South Asia. They discuss the territorial reordering which is taking place at the level of the state as boundaries are redemarcated in line with ethno-territoral demands; as borders are transversed by the movement of peoples, information and finance; and as the lines of territorial demarcation are perceived not only in terms of their fixed characteristics but as part of a process through which regional and ethnic identities continue to be formed and reformed. Each section ends with articles which focus on literature on geopolitics and boundaries. This is an invaluable addition to our understanding of contemporary world affairs.
Immigration Integration and Security
Recent acts of terrorism in Britain and Europe and the events of 9/11 in the United States have greatly influenced immigration, security, and integration policies in these countries. Yet many of the current practices surrounding these issues were developed decades ago, and are ill-suited to the dynamics of today's global economies and immigration patterns. At the core of much policy debate is the inherent paradox whereby immigrant populations are frequently perceived as posing a potential security threat yet bolster economies by providing an inexpensive workforce. Strict attention to border controls and immigration quotas has diverted focus away from perhaps the most significant dilemma: the integration of existing immigrant groups. Often restricted in their civil and political rights and targets of xenophobia, racial profiling, and discrimination, immigrants are unable or unwilling to integrate into the population. These factors breed distrust, disenfranchisement, and hatred-factors that potentially engender radicalization and can even threaten internal security. The contributors compare policies on these issues at three relational levels: between individual EU nations and the U.S., between the EU and U.S., and among EU nations. What emerges is a timely and critical examination of the variations and contradictions in policy at each level of interaction and how different agencies and different nations often work in opposition to each other with self-defeating results. While the contributors differ on courses of action, they offer fresh perspectives, some examining significant case studies and laying the groundwork for future debate on these crucial issues.
Innovations and the Social Economy
Through robust theoretical and in-depth empirical studies, this book offers the first opportunity to English-language readers to learn about the Québec experience of a social economy system.